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Primavera Sandro Botticelli
Primavera (Italian pronunciation: [primaˈveːra]), also known as Allegory of Spring, is a tempera panel painting as The Last Supper by Italian Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli painted about 1482. The painting features six female figures and two male, along with a cupid, in an orange grove. To the right of the painting, a flower-crowned female figure stands in a floral-patterned dress scattering flowers, collected in the folds of her gown.
The history of the painting is not certainly known, though it seems to have been commissioned by one of the Medici family. It contains references to the Roman poets Ovid and Lucretius, and may also allude to a poem by Poliziano. Since 1919 the painting has been part of the collection of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy.
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Le Printemps Botticelli
Le Printemps (Primavera en italien) est une peinture allégorique de Sandro Botticelli, exécutée en tempera sur panneau de bois entre 1478 et 1482, période de la Première Renaissance.
Cette célèbre œuvre d'art fut trouvée dans la villa médicéenne di Castello de son commanditaire, un riche Toscan. Lui faisait face, sur l'autre mur, La Naissance de Vénus. Le nom du tableau provient de l'inventaire général de Giorgio Vasari effectué en 1550 : il l'identifia à une célébration de l'arrivée du printemps. Le tableau fut caché au Castello di Montegufoni pendant l'occupation allemande et restitué aux Uffizi (Galerie des Offices) après la Seconde Guerre mondiale.
Primavera (Frühling) ist ein Gemälde des italienischen Renaissancemalers Sandro Botticelli. Das Bild gehört zu den bekanntesten und am häufigsten reproduzierten Werken der abendländischen Kunst. Die Bedeutung des Bildes, seine Funktion in der dynastischen und Kulturpolitik der Medici, hat im Laufe der Zeit unterschiedliche Interpretationen erfahren und gilt bisher in der Kunstwissenschaft als nicht überzeugend geklärt. Botticelli behandelte gerne allegorische Themen, die bei der intellektuellen Elite des Hofes der Medici sehr beliebt waren, die aber eine heutige Deutung erschweren.
《春》(Primavera)是意大利画家桑德罗·波提切利创作于1482年的蛋彩画,不是油画。1482年他以诗人波利蒂安歌颂爱神维纳斯的长诗为主题,为美第奇别墅所画。这幅画اللوحات الفنية 和《维纳斯的诞生(The Birth of Venus)》一起,成为波提切利一生中最著名的两幅画作。现藏于意大利佛罗伦萨的乌菲兹美术馆。
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The Gods and Goddess in Primavera Botticelli

Primavera is a tempera panel painting by Sandro Botticelli, and is also known as the Allegory of Spring. Botticelli was a famous Italian Renaissance artist that found great fortune with the creation of art focused on mythology and religion. Primavera Botticelli is believed to have been painted in 1482, although records don’t point to a definite time. It was still around the same time he did some of his other eye grabbing paintings, many which would define his career. Something that separates Primavera from other oil paintings for sale is the amount of controversy surrounding its subject matter. As a side note, Primavera is one of the most discussed pieces of art in the world, both for good and bad reasons. Whenever an education course talks deeply about art history, Sandro Botticelli Primavera is one of the subjects at the top of the list, same as The Scream and Starry Night Van Gogh. This is primarily true for Western art, which has fully embraced the painting and what it stands for. Primavera, like many other works by Botticelli, went unappreciated on a worldwide level but maintained fame locally. The size of the painting is 80 inches by 124 inches, and yet Botticelli managed to squeeze in multiple mythological figures. They are all in a garden, which has led historians to believe that it has a meaning related to the growth of Spring. When other historians have chimed in, they have cited the familiarity of the theme of love, something that fits in with that eras Neoplatonic values. Botticelli Primavera was also one of many paintings commissioned by the Medici family, who shared a very generous relationship with the artist. Whenever a painting of renown needed to be created he was at the top of their list as salvador dali and pablo picasso, and always delivered something that no other artist in the time period could.

Figures in the Painting

Because there are so many figures in Botticelli Primavera, things can get confusing for viewers that aren’t familiar with Greek mythology. Based on the most widely believed information as from Impression Sunrise and Dogs Playing Poker, the figures in the painting are as follows; Venus the goddess of love, her son cupid, the God of the month of May Mercury, the Three Graces representing chastity, beauty and love, the west wind Zephyrus, Chloris the nymph and Chloris once again, transformed into Flora.
With everything that is going on in the painting, allegorical meaning takes precedence over regular storytelling. The scene is one of a springtime marriage, with a lot of little notes from the Medici family thrown in. Using a setting of the orange grove is proof of this, since the orange tree was the Medici family symbol. So Botticelli adopted this into the final painting, which fits the narrative that it was meant to be a wedding present as Manet Olympia or The Kiss Klimt. Botticelli Primavera also made good use of the Three Graces, a group of women that symbolize purity. It can be argued that this is the most important painting that the three women make an appearance in.

Boticelli’s Masterpiece

There are a total of nine figures total in the painting, including cupid. Six are female, leaving the remaining two as males. The background and foreground are very pretty, and even with all of the people in the painting it doesn’t feel cluttered. It’s the perfect ratio of colors, size and overall depth for the space that Botticelli used as henri matisse and marc chagall. One thing that gets a lot of notice in the painting is the pastoral scenery, and on last count there were 500 different species of plant in the painting. There are 190 types of flowers alone, which by itself is staggering for a painting of this size. Botticelli Primavera was very detailed in his work, so years after the painting was finished, people were still trying to find the types of flowers he used in the painting. It’s one of those unsolved mysteries that makes for great debates when discussing art throughout history. A good comparison of the flower variations used in Primavera Botticelli is with still life paintings from Vincent Van Gogh like Iris Van Gogh and Sunflowers. The variety and concentration with details is very important for both artists, even when the flowers aren’t the star of their current work.

When looking at the theme of the painting, it’s hard not to draw comparisons between it and Flemish tapestries in the 1400’s and 1500’s. The similarity in the design is no coincidence, as both aim for pleasing the viewer with bright colors that blend well together. When interpretations of Sandro Botticelli Primavera goes beyond the theme, then the focus goes to all of the figures in the painting. One of the interpretations of the figures in the painting came from Elena Capretti in her book Botticelli, a 2002 book that is a rare treat for those interested in the life of Botticelli. Capretti believes that there is a story being told from right to left in the painting as Picasso Guernica or Melting Clocks, ending with the nymph Chloris becoming the Goddess of Spring. There is precedence for this affiliation in Primavera Botticelli, and it can be found in the fifth book of Ovid’s Fasti. There is a short tale in the book that covers the love affair between Zephyr and Chloris, with a large portion dedicated to the figures that Capretti believes to be in the painting. When breaking down the characters to their base form, interpretations are all over the place with historians like to joan miro and rene magritte, art lovers and fans of Botticelli. This debate over which characters are which also stems from lack of information from the original artist, or what his motivations were outside of the usual commissioning. The one identification that everyone agrees on is cupid, while there is a very strong sense that one of the men in the painting is Mars or Mercury.


There is no way to ignore the influence of Neoplatonism on Primavera Botticelli. It was a very strong philosophy at the time period the painting was commissioned, and the beliefs touched strongly on many things, especially the arts as later Persistence Of Memory and Van Gogh Self Portrait. Even after the Platonic Academy closed, the area was still full of Neoplatonist’s that drew their inspiration from various sources. One of those sources was Sandro Botticelli Primavera, a painting that they believed to be the perfect interpretation of Neoplatonic love. Whether this was intentional or not is up for debate, and it still doesn’t change how powerful it was to the movement. A point that gets mentioned is that the Medici family was one of the big names in that era that popularized Neoplatonism. They were also the biggest commissioner of Sandro Botticelli paintings, meaning that their influence extended beyond a friendly nature. Primavera Botticelli and other artworks paintings in that area may have a touch of Neoplatonism embedded in them, yet none were so forward in their understanding than the ones created by Sandro Botticelli. Strong followers even began to compare Venus in the painting to the Virgin Mary. They are both strong women that command the attention of men in whatever room they are in, and of course Venus in mythology is the pure spiritual and physical embodiment of beauty. Among all the figures in Botticelli Primavera, her presence stands out the most.

History of Primavera Botticelli

Some theories that have been around about how the painting came to be involve the usual commissioning by the Medici family. In this case, Lorenzo wanted it as a gift to celebrate the birth of his nephew Giulio. When Giulio’s father was murdered, Lorenzo instead decided to use Primavera Botticelli as a wedding gift. The prestige of the Medici family was vast, as Giulio would go on to one day become Pope. Historians like to works by andy warhol and jack vettriano that believe the story of this being a wedding gift to be true have also leaned on the idea that Lorenzo was the model for Mercury while his bride posed as Venus. It is an interesting theory, and one that is worth noting since Sandro Botticelli was so close to the family. Literature once again was part of the inspiration for the look of the painting, as Botticelli was inspired by either a Poliziano poem or the work of Roman poet Ovid. Since Rusticus was a Poliziano poem that was published in 1483, there is a good chance that Botticelli Primavera was the inspiration of Poliziano’s poem. This is a bit of a reversal, made entirely possible since the completion date of Primavera is a rough estimate as toperfect reviews. Currently the Primavera is showcased in Uffizi Gallery, located in Florence. A lot of work from notable artists can be seen here, and has been protected for centuries. In World War II Sandro Botticelli Primavera was moved to a castle so that it would be protected from bombing. Even after returning to Uffizi Gallery, it remained in pristine condition and didn’t need to be restored until 1982. While the restoration was a success, the bright colors that made it stand out have now darkened. This is a natural curse of age, yet one that Sandro Botticelli Primavera has survived quite well.

How Primavera Is Viewed

Even with the seemingly endless allegorical meanings that hide within the work with backgroud of landscape paintings, it is still considered a smashing success. The difficulty of the subject matter only makes it more of a must see work of art, and one of the most talked about paintings in the world. When comparing the style to Birth of Venus, also by Botticelli, it is clear he has an idea in mind with how Venus should be represented in Botticelli paintings. Botticelli Primavera in particular shows a confident Venus, which is how he usually depicts her in his works. The attention that goes into Venus can be seen beyond the physical beauty, and it is clear that the painter has great respect for what the Goddess stands for. Comparing Primavera Botticelli to his other works containing Venus wouldn’t be a fair comparison, since they tell two completely different stories. Even if some of their roots are dipped in Neoplatonism, they still stand out as individual masterpieces from a legendary artist. Primavera is a top ten painting associated with the Italian Renaissance as Mona Lisa and Creation of Adam, and is an important part of their history. Sandro Botticelli Primavera is priceless, and joins other talked about paintings that shaped the art world in the late 1400’s.

More Information about Primavera Botticelli

The flower-crowned female figure at right stands in a floral-patterned dress scattering flowers, collected in the folds of her gown.
Her nearest companion, a woman in diaphanous white, is being seized by a winged male from above. His cheeks are puffed, his expression intent, and his unnatural complexion separates him from the rest of the figures. The trees around him blow in the direction of his entry, as does the skirt of the woman he is seizing. The drapery of her companion blows in the other direction.
Next to this woman is another woman wearing a flowery designed dress that drapes over her body. She has a slight smile on her face while stepping towards the viewer and holding a grouping of flowers in her dress as Las Meninas. The flowers on her dress and in her hand consist of pinks, reds and whites accompanied by the greens of the leaves.
Clustered on the left, a group of three females also in diaphanous white, join hands in a dance, while a red-draped youth with a sword and a helmet near them raises a wooden rod towards some wispy gray clouds. Two of the women wear prominent necklaces as Girl With A Pearl Earring. The flying cherub has an arrow nocked to loose, directed towards the dancing girls. Central and somewhat isolated from the other figures stands a red-draped woman in blue. Like the flower-gatherer, she returns the viewer's gaze. The trees behind her form a broken arch to draw the eye.
The pastoral scenery is elaborate. Botticelli (2002) indicates there are 500 identified plant species depicted in the painting, with about 190 different flowers, much more than Monet Water Lilies. Botticelli. Primavera (1998) says that of the 190 different species of flowers depicted, at least 130 have been specifically named.
The overall appearance of the painting is similar to Flemish tapestries that were popular at the time.

Various interpretations of the figures have been set forth, but it is generally agreed that at least at one level the oil painting is, as characterized by Cunningham and Reich (2009), "an elaborate mythological allegory of the burgeoning fertility of the world."
This is a tale from the fifth book of Ovid's Fasti in which the wood nymph Chloris's naked charms attracted the first wind of Spring, Zephyr. Zephyr pursued her and as she was ravished, flowers sprang from her mouth and she became transformed into Flora, goddess of flowers who is different with Liberty Leading the People. In Ovid's work the reader is told 'till then the earth had been but of one colour'. From Chloris' name the colour may be guessed to have been green - the Greek word for green is khloros, the root of words like chlorophyll - and may be why Botticeli painted Zephyr in shades of bluish-green.
Botticelli's Pallas and the Centaur (1482) has been proposed as the companion piece to Primavera. Venus presides over the garden - an orange grove (a Medici symbol). She stands in front of the dark leaves of a myrtle bush. According to Hesiod, Venus had been born of the sea after the semen of Uranus had fallen upon the waters as toperfect.com reviews & complaints. Coming ashore in a shell she had clothed her nakedness in myrtle, and so the plant became sacred to her. The Graces accompanying her (and targeted by Cupid) bear jewels in the colors of the Medici family, while Mercury's caduceus keeps the garden safe from threatening clouds.
The basic identifications of characters is widely embraced, but other names are sometimes used for the females on the right. According to Botticelli (1901), the woman in the flowered dress is Primavera (a personification of Spring) whose companion is Flora not like works of tamara de lempicka and edward hopper. The male figure is generally accepted as Mercury but has been identified as Mars by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker of SmARThistory.
In addition to its overt meaning, the painting has been interpreted as an illustration of the ideal of Neoplatonic love popularized among the Medicis and their followers by Marsilio Ficino. The Neoplatonic philosophers saw Venus as ruling over both earthly and divine love and argued that she was the classical equivalent of the Virgin Mary; this is alluded to by the way she is framed in an altar-like setting that is similar to contemporary images of the Virgin Mary.
In this interpretation, as set out in Sandro Botticelli, 1444/45-1510 (2000), the earthy carnal love represented by Zephyrus to the right is renounced by the central figure of the Graces, who has turned her back to the scene, unconcerned by the threat represented to her by Cupid. Her focus is on Mercury, not the style of diego rivera and frida kahlo, who himself gazes beyond the canvas at what Deimling asserts hung as the companion piece to Primavera: Pallas and the Centaur, in which "love oriented towards knowledge" (embodied by Pallas Athena) proves triumphant over lust (symbolized by the centaur). It is, on the other hand, possible that, rather than her having renounced carnal love, the intense emotional expression with which she gazes at Mercury is one of dawning love, proleptic of the receipt of Cupid's arrow which appears to be aimed particularly at her; which emotion is being recognised, with an expression at once sympathetic, quizzical and apprehensive, by the sister immediately to her left.
The recent discovery of a disguised message and related evidence, unlike Cafe Terrace at Night and Rembrandt Night Watch, indicates that the subject matter of La Primavera is set in the context of the Pagan Renaissance Revival championed by Marsilio Ficino, Florence's foremost philosopher. He was the friend, mentor and tutor of the young Medici owner of the painting, in whom he sought to instill the Platonic philosophy he was introducing to Europe at the time. Ficino's heretical Platonic teaching, held that man possessed a spark of divinity, a view in marked contrast with Church teaching which denied Man's divine dimension and stressed his guilt and culpability.

The origin of the painting is somewhat unclear. It may have been created in response to a request in 1477 of Lorenzo de' Medici, or it may have been commissioned somewhat later by Lorenzo or his cousin Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici. One theory suggests Lorenzo commissioned the painting portraits to celebrate the birth of his nephew Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici (who later became Pope), but changed his mind after the assassination of Giulo's father, his brother Giuliano, having it instead completed as a wedding gift for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, who married in 1482.
It is frequently suggested that Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco is the model for Mercury in the portrait, and his bride Semirande represented as Flora (or Venus). It has also been proposed that the model for Venus was Simonetta Vespucci, wife of Marco Vespucci and perhaps the mistress of Giuliano de' Medici (who is also sometimes said to have been the model for Mercury).
The painting overall was inspired by a description the Roman poet Ovid wrote of the arrival of Spring (Fasti, Book 5, May 2), though the specifics may have been derived from a poem by Poliziano, as some works by roy lichtenstein and norman rockwell. As Poliziano's poem, "Rusticus", was published in 1483 and the painting is generally held to have been completed around 1482, some scholars have argued that the influence was reversed.
Another inspiration for the painting seems to have been the Lucretius poem "De rerum natura", which includes the lines, "Spring-time and Venus come, and Venus' boy, / The winged harbinger, steps on before, / And hard on Zephyr's foot-prints Mother Flora, / Sprinkling the ways before them, filleth all / With colors and with odors excellent."
Whatever the truth of its origin and inspiration, the painting was inventoried in the collection of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici in 1499 as mentioned by toperfect.com reviews. Since 1919, it has hung in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. During the Italian campaign of World War Two, the picture was moved to Montegufoni Castle about ten miles south west of Florence to protect it from wartime bombing.
It was returned to the Uffizi Gallery where it remains to the present day. In 1982, the painting was restored. The work has darkened considerably over the course of time.

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